Tuesday, January 25, 2011

Growing wealthier: Smart Growth, Climate Change and Prosperity

Center for Clean Air Policy

CCAP’s new report, Growing Wealthier: Smart Growth, Climate Change and Prosperity, authors Chuck Kooshian and Steve Winkelman discuss how application of smart growth principles can improve the bottom line for businesses, households and governments by increasing property values, cutting fuel and infrastructure costs, creating jobs, enhancing public health and strengthening communities.

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Reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the United States using existing federal authorities and state action

World Resources Institute
July 2010

This report presents an analysis of potential GHG emissions reductions under existing U.S. federal authorities and announced state actions through 2030.

Appendix VI: Transportation

Site, presentation and summary for policy makers

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Building India: Transforming the nation’s logistics infrastructure

Transforming India's logistics infrastructure - McKinsey Quarterly - Transportation - Strategy & Analysis

McKinsey & Company
Infrastructure Practice
September 2010

Transforming the nation's logistics infrastructure
The report discusses the losses to the economy due to poor logistics infrastructure, which will substantially increase under current trajectory of infrastructure development, and recommends a new, balanced modal approach for India's logistics infrastructure development. The report reveals that losses to the economy will increase from $45 billion (over 4 percent of GDP) currently to about $140 billion (5.3 percent of GDP) in 2020. The recommended balanced modal approach requires coordinated infrastructure development with increased focus on rail and better utilization of current infrastructure and can reduce losses and India's freight transport energy consumption by approximately 20 percent.

Executive Summary

Full Report

Artículo relacionado:
Transforming India’s logistics infrastructure

The Transportation Prescription: Bold new ideas for healthy, equitable transportation reform in America

Convergence Partnership

In an effort to further illuminate the opportunities and barriers transportation policy creates for building healthy communities, PolicyLink and Prevention Institute published an edited volume with details and depth into the intersection of transportation, equity and health. The publication is composed of chapters written by leading academics and advocates from across the nation covering topics from public transportation, walking and bicycling, to safety and economic development. The book highlights key policy solutions and provides background on the federal surface transportation policy.

The Transportation Prescription: Bold New Ideas for Healthy, Equitable Transportation Reform in America, a report by PolicyLink and Prevention Institute and commissioned by the Convergence Partnership, is a guide to how healthy, equitable transportation policies can improve the quality of life for everyone, and in particular for vulnerable communities. The upcoming federal transportation bill authorization -an over $500 billion investment that will set transportation policy and funding in the United States for approximately the next six years –presents an enormous opportunity to improve health and promote equity through our transportation system.

For additional information about the affects of transportation on health, please visit our Transportation and Health 101 Toolkit. There you will find resources, presentations, publications and advocacy opportunities related to this vital issue.

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Healthy, Equitable Transportation Policy: Recommendations and Research:
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Walking, urban design, and health: Toward a cost-benefit analysis framework

Marlon G. Boarnet
University of California, Irvine
Michael Greenwald
University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee
Tracy E. McMillan
University of Texas
Journal of Planning Education and Research
March 2008 vol. 27 no. 3 341-358

The authors examine the magnitude of health benefits from urban design characteristics that are associated with increased walking. Using geocoded travel diary data from Portland, Oregon, regression analyses give information on the magnitude and statistical significance of the link between urban design variables and two-day walking distances. From the coefficient point estimates, the authors link to the health literature to give information on how many persons would realize health benefits, in the form of reductions in mortality risk, from walking increases associated with urban design changes. Using a cost-benefit analysis framework, they give monetized estimates of the health benefits of various urban design changes. The article closes with suggestions about how the techniques developed can be applied to other cost-benefit analyses of the health benefits of planning projects that are intended to increase walking.

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Friday, January 14, 2011

Walk 21

Walk21 aims to champion the development of healthy sustainable and efficient communities where people choose to walk.

Through the Walk21 Conference series and the International Charter, Walk21 have a vision to create a world where people choose and are able to walk as a way to travel, to be healthy and to relax.

Visit also the Paper Search, hundreds of papers on walking, pedestrians, mobility.

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Pedestrian quality needs

COST - European Cooperation in Science and Technology

The Pedestrians' Quality Needs Project (PQN) identifies what people need for their safe and agreeable mobility in public space and shows the added value of a systems approach compared with sectoral approaches. The main objective is to provide knowledge of pedestrians' quality needs and how those needs relate to structural and functional interventions, policy making and regulation to support walking conditions across the EU and other involved countries.

The PQN project was launched in November 2006 and completed in November 2010. The website displays the complete project outcome.

Ir al proyecto y a sus enlaces, documentos, Reporte final y contactos

Thursday, January 13, 2011

Estudio exploratorio del comportamiento peatonal en la ciudad de Buenos Aires

Elaborado para: Dirección General de Seguridad Vial
Buenos Aires Ciudad
Mariano Guntern
Agosto 2010

El propósito del Estudio fue comprender en profundidad el comportamiento del peatón en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires desde una perspectiva integral, abarcando aspectos psicológicos y socio-culturales, que le permita a la Dirección General de Seguridad Vial del Gobierno de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires una planigicación estratégica y efectiva de una campaña de prevención de siniestros peatonales en la ciudad

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Ingredientes fundamentales para mejorar la infraestructura y el transporte urbano

Roberto Luis Urrunaga Pasco-Font
Jose Luis Bonifaz Fernández
Oscar Ponce de León Salas
Agenda 2011 - 11 temas urgentes para el país
Centro de Investigación de la Universidad del Pacífico

En el presente documento se abordan los beneficios indirectos en proyectos de infraestructura de transporte, además de la conectividad urbana en Lima. De esta forma, se ofrecen medidas concretas para mejorar la evaluación de proyectos de infraestructura de transporte y para la agilización del transporte público en Lima Metropolitana. En el primer caso se presenta una metodología para estimar los beneficios indirectos y en el segundo medidas regulatorias, de incentivos y de desarrollo de infraestructura vial.

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Convenio de las Naciones Unidas sobre el Contrato de Transporte Internacional de Mercancías Total o Parcialmente Marítimo - las "Reglas de Rotterdam"

Comisión de las Naciones Unidas para el derecho mercantil internacional

El Convenio, adoptado por la Asamblea General el 11 de diciembre de 2008, establece un régimen legal uniforme y moderno por el que se regulan los derechos y obligaciones de los cargadores, porteadores y destinatarios sujetos a un contrato de transporte de puerta a puerta que comprenda un tramo internacional por vía marítima. El Convenio desarrolla y moderniza antiguos convenios que regían el transporte internacional de mercancías por mar, en particular, el Convenio internacional para la unificación de ciertas reglas en materia de conocimientos de embarque (Bruselas, 25 de agosto de 1924) ("las Reglas de La Haya"), y sus Protocolos ("las Reglas de La Haya-Visby"), y el Convenio de las Naciones Unidas sobre el Transporte Marítimo de Mercancías (Hamburgo, 31 de marzo de 1978) ("las Reglas de Hamburgo").

Las Reglas de Rotterdam ofrecen un marco jurídico en el que se tienen en cuenta muchas novedades tecnológicas y comerciales que se han producido en los transportes marítimos desde que se adoptaron esos antiguos convenios, concretamente el aumento del transporte en contenedores, el deseo de englobar en un único contrato el transporte de puerta a puerta y la aparición de los documentos electrónicos de transporte. El Convenio brinda a los cargadores y porteadores un régimen universal vinculante y equilibrado que regula el funcionamiento de los contratos marítimos de transporte que puedan comprender otros modos de transporte.
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Project: Study of transport system in low carbon society


It has been internationally recognized that the global target for the reduction of CO2 in 2050 should be 50% of the present level. CO2 emissions from the transport sector, whose share of total emissions of all sectors has been around 20%, increased significantly in the last 30 years. If we pursue the global target of 50% reduction by 2050, the emissions from the transport sector should also be reduced drastically by means of not only technology development but also changes in life style. Therefore ITPS and Ritsumeikan University decided to launch the international study of transport systems in a low carbon society based on the following framework.

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Economic valuation of development projects: a case study of a non-motorized transport project in India

Hua Wang; Ke Fang; Yuyan Shi
World Bank
September 2010

One of the major difficulties in doing cost-benefit analysis of a development project is to estimate the total economic value of project benefits, which are usually multi-dimensional and include goods and services that are not traded in the market. Challenges also arise in aggregating the values of different benefits, which may not be mutually exclusive. This paper uses a contingent valuation approach to estimate the economic value of a non-motorized transport project in Pune, India, across beneficiaries. The heads of households which are potentially affected by the project are presented with a detailed description of the project, and then are asked to vote on whether such a project should be undertaken given different specifications of costs to the households. The total value of the project is then derived from the survey answers. Econometric analysis indicates that the survey responses provide generally reasonable valuation estimates.

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La industria del transporte marítimo y las crisis económicas

Georgina Cipoletta Tomassian
Ricardo J. Sánchez
Diciembre 2009

El 2009 fue un año que golpeó muy fuertemente al sector marítimo portuario, mundial y regionalmente. Un nuevo documento de CEPAL, Naciones Unidas, elaborado por Ricardo J. Sánchez y Georgina Cipoletta Tomassian, analiza las principales crisis económicas desde 1970 a la fecha, poniendo en paralelo los efectos sobre la industria marítima, tanto desde el punto de vista de la demanda de transporte marítimo, como de la oferta (la flota operativa y la proyectada).

Los antecedentes mencionados sirven como referencia para comenzar a analizar los efectos de la última crisis, iniciada a mediados de 2008, presentándose los principales indicadores de la industria desde aquel momento hasta finales del 2009.

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Guía para decisores: Externalidades de proyectos de infraestructura urbana

Documentos de proyectos Nº 266
Noviembre 2009

El presente documento es el resultado de una investigación teórica y aplicada respecto del potencial que presentan la identificación, medición y valoración de externalidades urbanas para el crecimiento sostenido de las ciudades. En este sentido, se establece, que los mecanismos e instrumentos de internalización de externalidades son un factor clave para maximizar el potencial que generan las ciudades en términos de mayor habitabilidad y funcionalidad. La incorporación de las externalidades urbanas en el espectro de la planificación y gestión de las ciudades, es producto de la necesidad de crear un entorno urbano que cuente con mayor eficiencia, seguridad, justicia y calidad ambiental.

En la actualidad las ciudades muestran que en la base de sus principales dinámicas de desarrollo, existen procesos económicos de producción, distribución y consumo que generan diversos efectos en el bienestar de las comunidades urbanas. De allí que se justifica enfocar el presente trabajo desde la óptica de la economía urbana, porque en esencia las externalidades son los efectos que generan las decisiones económicas de agentes y actores urbanos, que repercuten en el bienestar de la comunidad urbana en su conjunto.En términos generales, puede decirse que la indagación sobre cómo aprovechar las oportunidades que ofrece el entorno urbano y territorial surge de la insatisfacción creciente que existe sobre los resultados de las intervenciones urbanas, en cuanto a los objetivos más permanentes del desarrollo, ya que ni la competitividad, ni la igualdad de oportunidades, ni la calidad de vida, ni la seguridad se han generalizado en forma significativa, limitándose su éxito a resultados financieros y/o de rédito político. Esta insatisfacción se agudiza por la percepción de que las ciudades pueden y deben generar dicho beneficio, principalmente porque la proporción de población que reside en ciudades sigue aumentando en la Región.Al respecto, una de las manifestaciones en el contexto de la acelerada urbanización en América Latina y el Caribe, es la generación de externalidades producto del desarrollo de grandes proyectos de infraestructura urbana.

Por tanto, para estos efectos externos, se hace necesario tener criterios de valoración del impacto en el medio urbano, así como también, instrumentos de gestión que garanticen una mayor rentabilidad de las inversiones (económica, social y ambiental); que mejoren la funcionalidad de las ciudades.

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Diagnóstico y propuestas para el mejoramiento de los procesos de logística y aduana en la región de Centroamérica y Panamá

Documento de Proyecto
Marco Castro
Abril 2010

En los últimos años, Centroamérica ha avanzado con más celeridad en el proceso de integración regional y se han dado importantes pasos en el proceso de modernización aduanera. No obstante, aún existen algunos limitantes para facilitar el intercambio comercial. En este contexto la realidad que enfrentan las pequeñas medianas empresas que se involucran en el comercio internacional dista mucho de la realidad que enfrentan las grandes empresas.

El presente estudio identifica las limitantes más importantes que afectan el comercio intrarregional y específicamente las relacionadas con los trámites de aduana y la logística de exportación con el objetivo de generar propuestas de mejorar, a partir de la adopción de buenas prácticas, que permitan agilizar el comercio regional en beneficio particularmente de las empresas más pequeñas.

El estudio se desarrolló en dos fases, la primera consistió en la investigación y diagnóstico y la segunda en la propuesta de mejoramiento. La metodología utilizada implicó la investigación en fuentes primarias y secundarias.

Como parte de la recopilación de información se realizaron un conjunto de entrevistas calificadas a representantes de asociaciones y gremiales, empresarios y funcionarios de instituciones públicas y privadas de cada uno de los países y como resultado se pudieron establecer el orden de prioridad, según la percepción de los entrevistados, los problemas en los procesos de logística y aduanas en Centroamérica, así como algunas recomendaciones para atenderlas.

Destacan dentro del conjunto de problemas identificados, los tiempos e inspecciones para obtener permisos especiales, la limitada institucionalidad de apoyo, problemas de capacitación del personal de aduanas, procedimientos y sistemas excesivos y deficiencias en infraestructura. Como parte de las acciones de mejora se hace énfasis implementación de sistemas de transmisión electrónica y la revisión de procedimientos para la simplificación de trámites y se indican recomendaciones para fortalecer la institucionalidad de apoyo a las Mipymes.

Sin duda este documento, que es el resultado de un esfuerzo conjunto de CENPROMYPE, CEPAL y DESCA/GTZ, será un insumo más que contribuirá a los esfuerzos que se realizan en toda la región para agiliza el comercio y permitirá abonar a la discusión y búsqueda de soluciones reales que permitan consolidar aún más el proceso de la Integración Regional.

Ingrid Figueroa

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Sustainable roads and optimal mobility

Discussion paper
IRF Brussels Programme Centre
European Union Road Federation
October 2009

I) Introduction
II) Evaluating the impact of having sustainable roads
III)Some best practices
IV) Financing sustainable roads: Is it a luxury?
V) ERF-IRF BPC recommendations
VI) About the authors

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Safe roads for development: A policy framework for safe infrastructure on major road transport networks

United Nations Road Safety Collaboration

This policy framework focuses primarily on providing a high-level overview – it is not a comprehensive and prescriptive “how to do it” guide. It is concerned mainly with those major road networks that provide the linkages between towns and cities and with the busy commuter routes in urban corridors. These major roads are generally the roads where the majority of people are killed and in their greatest concentrations. This document focuses primarily on the safety of the users of these major roads and the conflicts between different road users resulting from the heavy use of these roads by motorised transport. Therefore, the report does not cover the roles that roads – often local roads and streets – fulfil as part of their “public domain” as a place to meet, to talk or play or search for goods and services.

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Urban Mobility

IRF Bulletin - Special Edition
August 2010

Sustainable urban mobility policies and plans place the emphasis on transportation systems that are more benign in terms of their impacts on the environment. They notably promote non-motorised means (walking and cycling) and public transportation, and also aim to reduce the use of private motor vehicles. The measures implemented represent a mixture of physical changes and user information systems that are designed to reduce traffic volumes and emissions, increase accessibility, improve safety, change travel habits and provide a better quality of life for all citizens. Urban mobility measures, therefore, fundamentally involve changing behaviour.

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Wednesday, January 12, 2011

The Future of Urban Transport

Department of transport
November 2009

The Cabinet Office Strategy Unit, DfT and a number of other Government Departments have worked together in recent months to consider how transport can best support the success of our urban areas. The analysis, which is being published alongside this paper, has important implications for decision makers at all levels of government. This paper both provides a summary of the conclusions set out in more detail in the analysis and builds on it to offer a vision for the future of urban transport.

Firstly the paper highlights why our cities and large towns are so important and why effective transport systems are essential to making them successful. It considers how these transport systems affect different areas – economy, health and urban environment - both negatively and positively and proposes solutions which can produce positive outcomes to all of them: triple win outcomes.

The paper then puts forward a vision of urban transport that envisages enhanced mobility through a wider choice of journey, reduced congestion, better health and enjoyable urban spaces. The steps already taken towards this vision are recognised: for example the flexible legislative and policy framework available to local authorities.

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International Traffic Safety Data and Analysis Group Annual Report 2010

International Transport Forum

This second Annual report of the IRTAD Group comprises:

A synthesis of the main trends in the year 2009, in terms of the development in the number of traffic deaths and crashes and preliminary trends for the year 2010. It also presents longer term trends in order to better understand the development taking place in the different countries.

A report activity of the IRTAD Group for the year 2010 summarising the activities of the Group.

Detailed reports from 32 countries, focusing on :

  • Latest data for the year 2009 and in some cases preliminary data for 2010.
  • Analysis of safety trends by road user category, by age group and by road type.
  • Analysis of specific safety issues such as: speeding, drink driving, and the wearing of seat belts and helmets.
  • The national strategies in place in IRTAD countries, including targets and performance towards meeting the targets.
  • Measures implemented in 2008-2010 to improve safety.
  • Recent safety research.

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Air Transport - Thematic Research Summary

Transport Research Knowledge Centre
October 2010

This Thematic Research Summary on Air Transport aims to provide the reader with a synthesis of results of completed European research projects and summarises the main relevant policy developments at EU level.

The first part includes a brief overview of the scope of the theme and summarises the relevant main policy developments at EU level. The second part contains a synthesis of the main findings and policy implications from research projects in this area, and identifies the implications for further research. This is done separately for seven sub-themes identified in the aeronautics and air transport related research reported in this summary.

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Policies and Measures to Mitigate Potential Environmental Impacts of Cross Border Infrastructure Projects in Asia

By ZhongXiang Zhang
ADB Institute
Working paper 261
January 11 2011

While bringing positive impacts and benefits, cross-border infrastructure projects face additional challenges relative to national projects. Moreover, such projects involve a variety of technical, regulatory, institutional, and legal factors, and their obstacles constrain the development of cross-border infrastructure projects. This paper argues that proper technical specifications and well-functioning regulatory, institutional and legislative/legal frameworks with clearer lines of oversight are crucial to getting such projects off the ground in the first place and to ensure that they operate properly and reliably while minimizing their environmental impacts. It is pointed out that many issues in theses areas need to be addressed at the national level. The paper concludes that such domestic efforts, coupled with regional frameworks and arrangements wherever necessary, will promote the further development of cross-border infrastructure projects.

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Making transportation sustainable: Insights from Germany

Ralph Buehler, John Pucher, and Uwe Kunert
Brookings Metropolitan Policy Program
April 2009

Worsening traffic congestion and increasing reliance on foreign oil affect America’s economic competitiveness. Excessive driving contributes to high energy consumption, carbon emissions, and pollution. The costs of maintaining the current structure are untenable. The existing gas tax cannot finance the massive investments needed to fix our deteriorating transportation system.

Increasing transportation sustainability in the United States requires policies that foster changes in travel behavior. Germany’s case may provide a helpful example. Although car use has grown in both countries, Germany has been far more successful than the United States in creating a more balanced transportation system. Sustainability, for the purposes of this report, means encouraging shorter trips by modes of transportation that require less energy and generate less harmful environmental impacts. Moreover, a more sustainable transportation system should foster commerce, reduce energy consumption and carbon emissions, increase safety, provide equal access to destinations for all groups of society, and enhance the quality of life.

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Monday, January 10, 2011

Manual de políticas amables con la bicicleta

Cámara de comercio de Bogotá
Junio 2010

La Cámara de Comercio de Bogotá presenta la traducción y adaptación del manual “Cycle-Inclusive Policy Development: A Handbook” (“Guía para el desarrollo de políticas ciclo-inclusivas”) elaborado por Interface for Cycling Expertise, quien cedió sus derechos para la traducción del documento. El objetivo del manual es convertirse en una herramienta para las autoridades distritales y municipales en el desarrollo de políticas públicas que promuevan la bicicleta como medio de transporte habitual.

Esta guía proporciona herramientas para promover el uso de la bicicleta basada en experiencias internacionales, que en su mayoría corresponden a ciudades europeas donde la condición de movilidad en bicicleta es de alta importancia dentro de la agenda pública. Sin embargo, en procura de que estas recomendaciones sean de fácil entendimiento y tengan aplicabilidad en nuestras ciudades y municipios, la CCB ha propendido por que este documento tome ciertas experiencias relevantes de algunos municipios del Departamento de Cundinamarca tales como: Cajicá, Chía, Cota, Fusagasugá, La Calera, Sibaté, Soacha, Sopó, Suesca, Tabio, Tenjo, Zipaquirá y Bogotá, en los cuales se evidencian esfuerzos y avances en la promoción del uso de la bicicleta y permiten avanzar en el desarrollo de proyectos de transporte no motorizado que contribuyan a mejorar las condiciones de movilidad de la ciudad-región.

Parte 1

Parte 2

Bogotá: Indicadores de Movilidad 2009 y 2010

Cámara de Comercio de Bogotá

Comportamiento de los indicadores de movilidad de la ciudad a diciembre de 2009

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Indicadores de movilidad 2010
Ir al sitio de los indicadores 2010

Quantification of the non-transport benefits resulting from rail investment

David Banister and Mark Thurstain-Goodwin
Journal of Transport Geography
June 2010

Traditional methods of evaluation have not been very successful in accounting for non-transport benefits resulting from rail investments. But increasingly, these factors are becoming more important in well-developed transport networks, as the effects of additional links or capacity cannot be justified in transport terms alone. This paper brings together the evidence at three separate levels arguing that there are different impacts that must be investigated at different levels with appropriate methods. At the macroeconomic level, regional network effects can be identified, as can the impacts on the economy as measured through changes in output and productivity. At the meso level, the impacts relate more to agglomeration economies and labour market effects, with some additional network and environmental consequences. At the micro level, the impacts are determined by the land and property market effects. Examples of rail investment are given for each of the scales of analysis, and conclusions are drawn on the future directions and challenges for the quantification of both transport and non-transport benefits.

1. Introduction
2. Macro economic effects – impacts on economic growth
2.1. Case Study 1 – the channel tunnel rail link (CTRL) in London
3. Meso economic effects – impacts on agglomeration
3.1. Case Study 2 – the Crossrail line (CL) in London
4. Micro economic effects – impacts on land and property values
4.1. Case Study 3 – the Jubilee Line Extension (JLE) in London
5. Comments and conclusions

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What Matters: How big can cities get?

McKinsey Quarterly
Enero 2011

The world is in the midst of a global mass urbanization that will change everything from how we govern to how we eat to how we care for the environment. What Matters has convened thinkers from around the world to look at the implications of Urban Man.

Visit the site to explore the following:

The Debate Zone: As the world urbanizes, will the most successful cities result from top-down planning or bottom-up innovation? Stan Gale, chairman of Gale International, and Alfredo Brillembourg, founding director of Urban Think Tank, weigh in.

Plus, essays from:

Jonathan Woetzel, director, McKinsey’s Shanghai office:

Stewart Brand, cofounder and president of The Long Now Foundation and founder of Whole Earth Catalog: 

Parag Khanna, senior research fellow, the New America Foundation: 

Robert Neuwirth, author of Shadow Cities

Dickson Despommier, president of the Vertical Farm Project: 

Richard Register, founder, Ecocity Builders: 

Estimating the Benefits of Managed Lanes

Mark Burris and Sunil Patil
University Transportation Center for Mobility
UTCM Publications: Final Technical Reports
September 2009

Stated preference (SP) studies developed to estimate travelers’ value of travel time savings (VTTS) on managed lanes (ML) may underestimate the VTTS. This study investigates survey design strategies and differentiating the VTTS for ordinary and six common urgent situations faced by the travelers in an attempt to improve on VTTS estimation. An internet based survey for Katy Freeway travelers was used to collect data for this study.

We used three different survey design strategies to produce surveys. We found that a random attribute level generation strategy, where the VTTS presented in the alternative was adjusted based on the answer to a previous SP question, performs better than other designs with respect to analysis of choice behavior and estimation of VTTS.

We analyzed SP choices for travelers facing ordinary and six common urgent travel situations. We
found that travelers value their travel time savings much more when facing most of the urgent situations.

Due to this significant increase in the VTTS for travelers on urgent trips it is possible that the majority of ML travelers are on urgent trips. This includes travelers from all income levels, as even low income travelers on urgent trips value their time more than many high income travelers on regular trips.

Therefore, using average VTTS will greatly underestimate the value of these MLs to travelers. This has significant policy implications since the benefits of MLs (and of most transportation investments) are primarily derived from travel time savings. Underestimating the value of ML travel time savings underestimates the benefits of MLs, reducing the likelihood of funding such facilities. Thus an important travel alternative would not be constructed. This study provides an important first step in proper estimation of these benefits using revised SP survey designs.

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Snow and ice databook, 2010


Varying in intensity and duration, winter remains a season of unpredictability and extremes.Road network managers facing the rigours of winter must continually adapt their services to ensure the safety of road users, maintain accessibility and ensure the network is maintained to acceptable standards.

The third edition of the Snow and Ice Databook 2010 serves as a valuable reference for stakeholders involved in winter maintenance activities.It describes the practices and experience of 25 countries specialised in the area of winter maintenance.

Within each country report there is an overview of the country with respect to its demographics, political organisation, length and characteristics of its road network, the intensity and nature of the traffic and, of course, the climatic characteristics.These are all elements which must be taken into account when analysing, comparing and putting the information provided in this compendium into perspective and which are essential to gaining a better understanding of the practices employed in each country.

Subsequent chapters detail each country's winter road management standards, its organisation and operation of winter maintenance, snow and ice control measures, traffic safety and the provision of information to users.

Also presented is the on-going research and commitment to continuous improvement demonstrated by each country, including the evaluation of new approaches, new techniques, the development of new tools and the ongoing re-examination of practices which constitute a dynamic response to the challenges of operating and maintaining a network during winter.

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A smarter transportation system for the 21st century

A Frost & Sullivan White Paper

Globalization, for better or worse, is a dominant feature of our world. As barriers between continents, countries and cities have diminished, and a surging population has urbanized, economic growth and prosperity have become inextricably linked to accessibility; accessibility to markets, to production materials, to services, to food and to culture, which are all preconditions for human survival. The increasing density of urban living, however, can slow the movement of people as well as goods; therefore, accessibility is dependent on an efficient and intricate global network of air, rail, road, and water links between and within our population centers of cities and megacities.

This paper finds that our aging transportation system is threatening to restrain globalization as current systems are struggling to meet the needs of this highly urbanized planet in which the business of moving goods and people from one place to another typically generates toxic byproducts and lost productivity. Ground-breaking innovations in transportation technology are difficult for the current system to accommodate, and the system itself has yet to evolve to meet the changed set of fundamental needs and demands placed on it. Whereas the system has not yet completely gridlocked, we clearly need something that is smarter, more efficient, and better than what we have now.

We think the answer is a new ecosystem that marries information technology to the global air, rail, road, and water transportation networks.

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Sustainable transportation: An international perspective

Projections volume 9
MIT Journal of Planning

Editorial 6
Eva Kassens

A holistic assessment framework for urban development and transportation with innovative triple bottom line sustainability metrics 10
Dr. Ken doust, professor John Black

Neighbourhood design impact on travel behavior : a comparison of US and UK experience 28
Dr. Paulus t. Aditjandra, professor Corinne A. Mulley, professor John D. Nelson

Transportation and employment accessibility in a changing context of metropolitan growth : the case of Delhi, India 58
Associate professor Piyushimita Thakuriah

Road privatization and sustainability 82
Omid m. Rouhani

Scenario analysis helps identify sustainable land use and transportation policies 106
Jill K. Locantore, a. Simon Montagu, Steven D. Rudy, Erik E. Sabina

Conclusion : The dilemmas of sustainable transport 120
Professor David Danister

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Friday, January 7, 2011

Reducing Border Waiting Times

February 2009

This publication is an abstract from the latest IRU Working Papers on improving border crossing procedures


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Natural Hazards, UnNatural Disasters: The economics of effective prevention

Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery - GFDRR
World Bank
United Nations


Earthquakes, droughts, floods, and storms are natural hazards, but unnatural disasters are the deaths and damages that result from human acts of omission and commission. Every disaster is unique, but each exposes actions—by individuals and governments at different levels—that, had they been different, would have resulted in fewer deaths and less damage. Prevention is possible, and this book examines what it takes to do this cost-effectively.

Natural Hazards, UnNatural Disasters looks at disasters primarily through an economic lens. Economists emphasize self-interest to explain how people choose the amount of prevention, insurance, and coping. But lenses can distort as well as sharpen images, so the book also draws from other disciplines: psychology to examine how people may misperceive risks, political science to understand voting patterns, and nutrition science to see how stunting in children after a disaster impairs cognitive abilities and productivity as adults much later. It asks not only the tough questions, but some unexpected ones as well: Should all disasters be prevented? Do disasters increase or decrease conflict? Does foreign aid help or hinder prevention? The answers are not obvious. Peering into the future, it finds that growing cities and a changing climate will shape the disaster prevention landscape. While it is cautious about the future, it is not alarmist.

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Climate Change and Urban Transportation in Latin America: An Analysis of Recent Projects

Carolyn McAndrews, Elizabeth Deakin and Lee Schipper
Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting 2010 (89th)
Paper #10-2225

Urban transportation investments present an opportunity to mitigate climate change while supporting effective, clean, safe, and equitable transportation. In this paper, the authors discuss how a set of urban transportation investments in Latin America responds to the issue of climate change. The authors analyzed a sample of recent transportation projects funded by an international bank to learn what kinds of infrastructure, plans, and policies are being pursued, and to assess whether projects developed specifically to address climate change differ from other projects. Loans and grants supported a mix of infrastructure for transit, bicycles, and pedestrians, as well as institutional strengthening. While only a few projects explicitly addressed climate change mitigation, their impacts on mode choice and urban development almost surely have positive effects compared to what would happen without them. In some cases, however, funding for road construction at the urban fringe may induce outward urban expansion and greater auto use. Specifically analyzing the carbon consequences of all projects, as well as their combined effects in the overall system, would provide better ability to track and take credit for carbon mitigation and also could flag potential problem areas.

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International Journal of Sustainable Transportation - Most cited articles 2007-2009

International Journal of Sustainable Transportation has a 2009 Impact Factor of .750!
Now you can read the most-cited articles from 2007-2009 for free:

D. A. Hensher, Some Insights into the Key Influences on Trip-Chaining Activity and Public Transport Use of Seniors and the Elderly
Volume 1, Issue 1, pp. 53-68.

B.P.Y. Loo, A.S.Y. Chow, Changing Urban Form in Hong Kong: What Are the Challenges on Sustainable Transportation?
Volume 2, Issue 3, pp. 177-193.

R. Cervero, O.L. Sarmiento, E. Jacoby, et al., Influences of Built Environments on Walking and Cycling: Lessons from Bogota
Volume 3, Issue 4, pp. 203-226.

M.G.H. Bell, Mixed Routing Strategies for Hazardous Materials: Decision-Making Under Complete Uncertainty
Volume 1, Issue 2, pp. 133-142.

E.T. Verhoef, H. Mohring, Self-Financing Roads Volume 3, Issue 5-6, pp.293-311.

J. Zacharias, The Nonmotorized Core of Tianjin Volume 1, Issue 4, pp. 231-248.

E. E. Boschmann, M. P. Kwan, Toward Socially Sustainable Urban Transportation: Progress and Potentials
Volume 2, Issue 3, pp. 138-157.

X.L. Guo, H. Yang, Analysis of a Build-Operate-Transfer Scheme for Road Franchising
Volume 3, Issue 5-6, pp. 312-338.

S. Brathen, J. Odeck, Road Funding in Norway: Experiences and Perspectives
Volume 3, Issue 5-6, pp. 373-388.

M. C. Coelho, T.L. Farias, N.M. Rouphail, A Numerical Tool for Estimating Pollutant Emissions and Vehicles Performance in Traffic Interruptions on Urban Corridors
Volume 3, Issue 4, pp. 246-262.

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Making sustainable transport politically and publicly acceptable: Lessons from the EU, USA and Canada

David Banister, John Pucher and Martin Lee-Gosselin
University College London, Rutgers University, New Jersey, and Laval University, Quebec City
in: Institutions and Sustainable Transport: Regulatory Reform in Advanced Economies. Cheltenham, England: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2007, pp. 17-50

In recent years much of the literature has supported the need to achieve greater sustainability in the transport system. Even though there still remains some uncertainty about the effectiveness of alternative policies, many promising measures have been implemented in an increasing number of cities and countries throughout the world. The next steps must be to encourage a more widespread adoption of best practice in the implementation of sustainable transport policies. Thus, the most pressing problem is how to make sustainable transport policies more acceptable, both among the general public and their elected politicians. In this chapter, we investigate ways to increase the acceptability of such policies, using case study material from the USA, Canada and the EU.

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Travel Surveys

A1D10: Committee on Travel Survey Methods
Chairman: Elaine Murakami, Federal Highway Administration

ROBERT GRIFFITHS, Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments
A. J. RICHARDSON, University of Sydney, Australia
MARTIN E. H. LEE-GOSSELIN, Université Laval, Quebec City, Canada

Travel surveys will continue to be one of the most important ways of obtaining the critical information needed for transportation planning and decision making in the new millennium. Not only will these surveys be used to gather current information about the demographic, socioeconomic, and trip-making characteristics of individuals and households, but they will also be used to further our understanding of travel in relation to the choice, location, and scheduling of daily activities. This will enable us to enhance our travel forecasting methods and improve our ability to predict changes in daily travel patterns in response to current social and economic trends and new investments in transportation systems and services. These travel surveys will also play a role in evaluating changes in transportation supply and regulation as they occur.

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A guide to transportation funding options: Phase 2 - Final report

University Transportation Center for Mobility
October 2009

This project is a continuation of a project that provided a one-stop shop website, A Guide to Transportation Funding Options (http://utcm.tamu.edu/tfo), detailing transportation funding options and their applicability in an easy-to-use format. The first phase of this project compiled information on transportation funding options for highway funding.

This subsequent phase provided similar information for other modes of transportation including transit, rail, aviation, and ports. The information is presented in a format that is user friendly and easily accessible via the Internet for anyone interested in project financing methods

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Políticas integradas de infraestructura, transporte y logística: experiencias internacionales y propuestas iniciales

Georgina Cipoletta Tomassian
Gabriel Pérez Salas
Ricardo J. Sánchez
Mayo 2010

Este nuevo documento de la Unidad de Servicios de Infraestructura, de los autores Ricardo J. Sánchez, Georgina Cipoletta Tomassian y Gabriel Pérez Salas, analiza la forma como se diseñan, planifican. monitorean, regulan y operan las políticas públicas de infraestructura y transporte en la región, analizando como la falta de integralidad en las mismas afectan su desempeño y sostenibilidad futura. El estudio también incluye el análisis de buenas prácticas en el mundo sobre políticas, en las que se ha tomado en cuenta una visión integral de la tríada Infraestructura - Transporte - Logística, sin olvidar la facilitación del transporte. El trabajo presentado es una disertación seminal que plantea los fundamentos para el desarrollo de una política nacional integrada. Asimismo, el estudio de los casos internacionales colabora en la construcción de nuevas propuestas y en la obtención de elementos analíticos para la toma de decisiones en países que se propongan una reformulación en sus políticas con el fin de fomentar la productividad, la competitividad y el desarrollo económico sustentable.


  • Infraestructura, Transporte y Logística: Una triada básica para el desarrollo
  • La necesidad de una política nacional de infraestructura, transporte y logística
  • Los casos de estudio de políticas integradas
  • Conclusiones y consideraciones para el establecimiento de una política integrada

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Estrategia marítima portuaria regional centroamericana

Comisión Centroamericana de Transporte Marítimo
Mayo 2010

La XXXIII Reunión de Jefes de Estado y de Gobierno de los Países del Sistema de la Integración Centroamericana realizada en San Pedro Sula, Honduras el 5 de diciembre de 2008 acordó:
“Instruir a la Comisión Centroamericana de Transporte Marítimo (COCATRAM), a concluir la elaboración de la Estrategia Marítima Portuaria Regional Centroamericana.”

Se definieron 6 áreas de acción:

1.Transporte Marítimo
2. Puertos
3. Política Marítima Comunitaria
4. Administraciones Marítimas
5. Capacitación y Formación
6. Los Espacios Marinos y Costeros.

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Thursday, January 6, 2011

Rural Road Investment Efficiency: Lessons from Burkina Faso, Cameroon, and Uganda

Authors: Raballand, Gael; Macchi, Patricia
World Bank
Directions in development infrastructure
March 2010

This book was written because at the time when Development Partners focus especially on rural mobility, it is worth trying to know how to achieve better aid effectiveness in rural transport. So far, most Development Partners and governments in SSA have relied on two overarching assumptions, which have led to massive road investments: (i) most households in rural areas in Africa are not connected to markets and therefore need a road passable for a truck (all the more as they are remote), (ii) roads with high level of service are crucial to achieve high economic impact. We demonstrate in this book that these assumptions may be questioned in many cases in SSA. Based on data collection from various sources in Burkina Faso, Cameroon and Uganda, we demonstrate that from a cost-benefit perspective, the additional cost of extending an all-weather road 2 more km to the farmer??s door outweigh the benefits in most cases. Therefore, a one size fits all approach, such as achieving the Rural Access Index, is not wishful from an aid effectiveness perspective. We should realize that a seven-meter road may not be required in most rural areas in SSA. Some pilots should be supported locally to potentially meet the demand for Intermediate Means of Transport (although any success may not be replicable to another region or country). The last mile should not be a road for a truck but the secondary network, which link secondary cities, should be in good condition (paved or unpaved) to enable truck fleet efficiency and competition. Finally, donor coordination is a must to avoid for example the rehabilitation of rural roads not connected to passable secondary roads.

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Public Policies for Pedestrian and Bicyclist Safety and Mobility: An Implementation Project of the Pedestrian and Bicyclist Safety and Mobility International Scan

Federal Highway Administration
Office of International Programs

August 2010

In May 2009, a team of 12 transportation professionals from the United States with expertise in bicycling and walking visited five countries in Europe to identify and assess effective approaches to improve pedestrian and bicyclist safety and mobility. The countries visited—Denmark, Germany, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom—were chosen because of their innovative approaches to pedestrian and bicycle transportation, as well as the potential transferability of their policies and practices. Later in 2009, the international scan team developed a summary report that outlined its findings and a list of recommended implementation actions. One of the highest rated implementation actions was the development of a policy review for bicycling and walking safety and mobility. This report is the result of that recommended implementation action. The purpose of this report is to identify and provide examples of effective policies and implementing programs that support pedestrian and bicyclist safety and mobility. The examples are from cities in the United States, as well as from other countries (in particular, the five countries visited in the international scan).

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Wednesday, January 5, 2011

The potential for CO2 emissions trading in transport: the case of personal vehicles and freight

Energy Efficiency, Volume 3, Number 2
May 2010

Transport currently accounts for around 25–30% of global CO2 emissions and this contribution is growing rapidly. Moreover, road transport holds by far the major part in these emissions. Because of the social and political reluctance to increase fuel taxation, it is of some interest to explore the inclusion of road transport in emission trading schemes. Starting from the theory about tradable permits, their relevance in transport emissions, their appropriate targets and their potential for practical implementation are analysed. Two proposals of “tradable rights for fuel consumption” are presented, the one for drivers of private vehicles, the other for freight transportation. Finally, potential pitfalls and implementation issues are also discussed. It is concluded that the cost of operating markets of fuel rights would be the price to be paid for an effective involvement of the transport sector in the effort to reduce emissions.

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International scan: Reducing Congestion and Funding Transportation Using Road Pricing

Federal Highway Administration International Programs

The purpose of the International Scan was to identify new ideas and practical, workable models for integrating road pricing approaches into state, local, and regional policies, programs, and practices. The findings are intended to inform the U.S. road pricing research agenda and identify best practices from international experience that will assist U.S. practitioners.

The scan team visited with representatives from Sweden, the United Kingdom, Singapore, Germany, the Czech Republic, and the Netherlands in December 2009. The team was composed of representatives from the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and Federal Transit Administration (FTA); the Georgia, Minnesota, Virginia, and Washington State Departments of Transportation; the Port Authority of New Jersey and New York; and SRF Consulting Group, Inc. A list of scan team members is presented on the back cover.

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El nuevo desafío de las concesiones de obras públicas en Chile: Hacia una mayor eficiencia y desarrollo institucional

Eduardo Bitran y Marcelo Villena
Estudios Públicos Nº 117 2010

Existe abundante literatura sobre los beneficios y la evolución de los modelos de concesión tanto en Latinoamérica como en Chile, advirtiéndose el rol que pueden tener las empresas privadas en la provisión de bienes públicos. También hay relativo consenso respecto de cuáles son las principales fallas y riesgos tanto en el diseño de los mecanismos de concesión como en su operación. Entre otros, destacan los problemas de renegociación de obras adicionales, de riesgo de hold-up del Estado, de selección de proyectos sin la rentabilidad social requerida, de inadecuada distribución de riesgos, de contabilidad fiscal inadecuada de la inversión pública pagada en forma diferida y de mecanismos inapropiados de solución de controversias. Sin embargo, no hay mucha literatura de cómo enfrentar estos problemas a partir de un mejoramiento en el marco legal y diseño institucional, en el ámbito de las regulaciones y procedimientos que afectan a las asociaciones público-privadas de un país. El presente artículo aborda esta problemática basado en la experiencia chilena, sin duda una de las más exitosas en la región tanto por el clima para la inversión y su eficiencia operacional, como por la generación de proyectos. A partir de un análisis de las distintas etapas que ha vivido el proceso de concesiones chileno, se señalan medidas de acción concretas que deberían dar vida a un nuevo impulso en el marco de las concesiones en el país, velando por reglas del juego claras y expeditas que apunten a maximizar el bienestar de la sociedad chilena y a evitar la desacreditación del sistema.





Guía sobre medio ambiente, salud y seguridad para carreteras de peaje


Las Guías sobre medio ambiente, salud y seguridad son documentos de referencia técnica que contienen ejemplos generales y específicos de la práctica internacional recomendada para la industria en cuestión. Cuando uno o más miembros del Grupo del Banco Mundial participan en un proyecto, estas guías sobre medio ambiente, salud y seguridad se aplican con arreglo a los requisitos de sus respectivas políticas y normas. Las presentes guías sobre medio ambiente, salud y seguridad para este sector de la industria deben usarse junto con el documento que contiene las Guías generales sobre medio ambiente, salud y seguridad, en el que se ofrece orientación a los usuarios respecto de cuestiones generales sobre la materia que pueden aplicarse potencialmente a todos los sectores industriales. En el caso de proyectos complejos, es probable que deban usarse las guías aplicables a varios sectores industriales, cuya lista completa se publica en el siguiente sitio web:

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Infraestructura pública y participación privada: conceptos y experiencias en América y España


La publicación que el lector tiene en sus manos recoge los conceptos y experiencias en el desarrollo de infraestructura pública y participación privada en América y España. El documento examina una variedad de modelos de gestión en diferentes contextos sociales y económicos, y constituye una importante referencia para los involucrados en la concepción y ejecución de políticas públicas


Infraestructura en la integración regional
El desafío de financiar infraestructura: aplicación al caso español
Modelos de financiación de infraestructura
El modelo de Participación Público-Privada
La concesión de infraestructura
La concesión de obras públicas en España
Experiencias en América

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Sistema Integrado de Transporte Público para Arequipa

Documentos de la municipalidad de Arequipa acerca del proyecto de Sistema Integrado de Transporte Público
Municipalidad de Arequipa
Enero 2011

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