Friday, July 29, 2011

Gestión de estacionamientos: Una contribución hacia ciudades más amables

Tom Rye
Módulo 2c
Transporte sostenible: Texto de referencia para formuladores de políticas públicas de ciudades en desarrollo
Proyecto de Transporte Urbano Sostenible
Mayo 2011

Cada auto que sale a la calle necesita un lugar para ser estacionado: Este es un tema principal en casi todas las áreas urbanas. La disponibilidad y costo de un estacionamiento es determinante para la decisión de conducir o no conducir hasta un destino particular o inclusive para decidir si tener o no tener auto.

Este módulo de GIZ fue hecho con la colaboración del Instituto del Aire Limpio y fue lanzado en la conferencia de transporte sostenible, calidad del aire y cambio climático para América Latina y el Caribe.

En sus páginas discute los desafíos operacionales, de planeamiento, institucionales y sociales que giran alrededor de las políticas de gestión de estacionamientos en ciudades y como se pueden superar. El módulo también discute acerca de temas como marcado, demanda de estacionamientos y mitos comunes asociados con los estacionamientos de vehículos

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GIZ SUTP Newsletter Issue 03/11 - May June 2011

Sustainable Urban Transport Project - GIZ
May/June 2011

In this Edition:

  • KOTI and GIZ sign a MoU at the KOTI World Forum
  • GIZ-SUTP and IUT organized a 5-Day training course on Public Transport in Goa from 11-15th July
  • GIZ at the Fifth Asia Pacific Urban Forum, Bangkok, Thailand
  • GIZ participated in the "Working Together for Sustainable and Healthy Urban Transport” workshop in Kyiv
  • BTG Symposium in Bonn: "Moving Transport from CDM to NAMAs"
  • VELOFORUM Ukraine with GIZ participation
  • GIZ at C40 Summit in Sao Paulo (Brazil)
  • GIZ at the International Transport Forum (ITF), Leipzig
  • GIZ-SUTP at the 2nd NTDPC Consultation meeting in Bangalore
  • GIZ Transport Team at the International Conference on Climate Friendly Transport
  • No agreement on Transport at CSD 19!
  • GIZ at the CAI LAC Sustainable Transport Conference in Rosario (9-13 May)
  • Learning Centre at CSD 19

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Monday, July 25, 2011

Geohazard management in the transport sector

World Bank
Transport notes series
Roads & Highways Thematic Group
March 2010

Geohazards can result in significant loss of human life as well as cause extensive damage to infrastructure. The magnitude and frequency of geohazard events ranges from earthquakes and tsunamis to landslides and flash floods. In the most severe cases involving the low frequency but more intense geohazards like earthquakes or tsunamis, the primary concern, ex ante, is on the minimization of the potential loss of life and property, damage to infrastructure, and ensuring continuity in the functionality of public and private services. In the higher frequency, lower impact, geohazards, such as landslides, flash floods, and rockfall, proper planning remains vital, but is often overlooked in transition and developing economies. In the transport sector, proper planning for this category of geohazards can realize significant
savings in construction costs, avoiding cost over-runs, repair costs and costly delays, and subsequent maintenance costs.

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Making a small market thrive: Recommendations for efficiency gains in the Latin American Air Cargo Market

Tomás Serebrisky, Jordan Schwartz, María Claudia Pachón and Andrés Ricover
World Bank
Transport Papers 35
March 2011

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Wednesday, July 20, 2011

Logistics in lagging regions

Charles Kunaka
World Bank
December 2010

Small scale producers in developing countries lack easy access to efficient logistics services. They are faced with long distances from both domestic and international markets. Unless they consolidate their trade volumes they face high costs which diminish their ability to trade. However, the process of consolidation is not without cost nor does it occur on its own accord. As a result, the consolidation is typically handled by intermediaries.

Using case studies of sisal and soybean supply chains in Brazil and India respectively, this study explores the role and impact of intermediaries in facilitating trade in lagging regions. The study assesses the horizontal relationships between the small scale producers in thin markets and the vertical connections between different tiers of the same supply chain. The study analyzes the traditional approach to linking producers namely through cooperatives and itinerant traders and the relatively newer innovations using ICT.

The study finds that farmers linked through the different mechanisms are more integrated to international supply chains or are able to better manage supply chains longer than would otherwise be the case. Intermediaries play several roles including providing transport services and facilitating market exchanges, payments, risk sharing and quality improvements. Generally, information technology driven innovations make it easier to integrate adjacent steps in the value chain.

This report on logistics performance at the sub-national level is an on-going endeavour. Similar analysis is being carried out in some countries in Africa to identify the evolving role of intermediaries in low income regions. The results will be developed into a major publication on this topic, with recommendations on how development agencies, civil society and the private sector can improve the design of strategies to reduce logistics costs in low income areas.

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Tuesday, July 19, 2011

More mobility with less traffic: Arguments for sustainable mobility

German Federal Environment Agency
March 2011

The car acts like a drug: It opens up new dimensions of mobility, but when used to excess has considerable side-effects which choke the mobility it affords. A close analysis of the concept of mobility shows that mobility is not the same as traffic. One and the same level of mobility can be achieved with much or with little traffic. The determining factor is the range of activities offered within an individual's radius of action. If we wish to safeguard mobility for the long term, we have to improve opportunities for activities near the home rather than widen the radiuses of action.

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Some managerial and technical issues in transport sector development projects

Tengiz Gogelia and Antti Talvitie
Online First
June 2011

In development projects there is only one problem, but it is huge: everything is connected to everything else. The authors separated from the whole the following important issues: (1) Project management and coordination: The Recipient Country’s Aid Coordination Unit (ACU) and Project Implementation Unit (PIU) staffed with competent local experts are necessary to hold the reform process memory. This issue is considered in the context of “Ownership” and “Government Leadership” as it is recognized in donor aid forums in the last decade. (2) Human resource development: Most technical assistance is oriented toward providing solutions, and the development of local capacities is ignored. The authors point out the importance of specially selected local experts—the “Technical Communication Officers”. (3) Institutional functioning: A ‘process consultation’ approach to institutional restructuring is promoted in which the Recipient has the key role. It is also recommended that the Recipient is the initiator of technical assistance in the projects. (4) Design standards are a recurrent and difficult problem. Recommendations are necessary how to transit to the new standards and how to mediate their approval process. (5) Procurement and management of consulting services: The authors argue that the recipient country qualified professionals have to be in the lead role. The vignettes in the paper are from the “real world” although they are modified slightly to protect privacy.

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Monday, July 18, 2011

Intelligent transport systems in action: Action plan and legal framework for the deployment of intelligent transport systems (ITS) in Europe

European Union

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The Wales freight strategy

European Transport Conference 2007 - Freight and logistics

Freight transport is more important to the way of life we take for granted than we realise. There are obvious functions, such as the transit of consumer goods to shops, supplies to hospitals and waste removal. Freight transport is an intrinsic part of the economy. However, freight requirements are often poorly considered in the field of transport planning, and are typically associated with negative impacts, particularly on the environment. Initiatives to consider freight in transport planning strategy have been tried, but these vary in scope and effectiveness, and often don’t represent ‘official’ policy.

This paper discusses development of the Wales Freight Strategy, one of the first national freight policies in the UK, and introduces the philosophy and policies of the strategy.

The Transport (Wales) Act 2006 is a watershed for transport in Wales, putting a ‘general transport duty’ on the National Assembly for Wales to promote and encourage; “safe, integrated, sustainable, efficient and economic transport facilities and services… (including) …those required for the transportation of freight”. The Welsh Assembly Government, with the assistance of Halcrow, the Wales Transport Research Centre and the Wales Freight Group, has developed the Wales Freight Strategy, as a ‘daughter’ document to the Wales Transport Strategy.

Key points covered by the paper include:

Developing the strategy – in particular taking into account how the Wales Freight Strategy has been specifically developed to fit with the outcomes and themes of the Wales Transport Strategy;

The role of the Wales Freight Group of informed stakeholders;

Policies and aims – some of the specific initiatives being suggested by the strategy, that address freight demand and supply, with consideration of modes operating singly and in inter/multi-modal situations, as well as the impacts of freight transport; and

Taking the strategy forward – including the partnerships that will be developed and actions to be undertaken, as set out in the ‘steps towards delivery’ of the strategy.

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Integrative freight demand management in the New York City metropolitan area

José Holguín-Veras, Ph.D., P.E.
Professor, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
Kaan Ozbay, Ph.D.
Professor, Rutgers University
Alain Kornhauser, Ph.D.
Chairman, ALK Technologies
Anthony Shorris
Director, Rudin Center for Transportation Policy and Management
Satish Ukkusuri, Ph.D.
Associate Professor, Purdue University
Rutgers Intelligent Transportation Systems Laboratory
September 2010

This project is one of the first in the world that has successfully integrated the use of remote sensing technology —in this case Global Positioning System (GPS) enabled cell phones— as part of a system that effectively reduces truck traffic in the congested hours of the day, through the use of incentives to receivers.

In the opinion of the team, the project has opened new doors for the use of remote sensing technology as a central component of a freight demand management concept that is widely supported by both the freight industry and transportation agencies, which is solidly supported by cutting edge research. The team is optimistic that the project will prove to be a watershed in freight demand management in urban areas.

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Friday, July 15, 2011

A note on the relationship between obesity and driving

Sheldon H. Jacobson, Douglas M. King, Rong Yuan
Transport Policy
Junio 2011

Vehicle travel and obesity rates in the United States have surged in recent decades. This paper contributes to the mounting evidence of a link between them by drawing attention to a very close relationship between trends in miles driven per licensed driver and adult obesity rates six years later. It also presents evidence on why the effect might be expected to be lagged by six years. A simple model is produced, which predicts reductions in obesity rates over the next few years. If these reductions come about, the model will be seen to offer a powerful insight into the relationship between driving and obesity. If the relationship is more than coincidental, it has implications for transport policy and supports the development of a multi-pronged, interdisciplinary approach to tackle increased driving and obesity.

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Managing Multinational Infrastructure: An analysis of EU Institutional Structures and Best Practices

By Willem van der Geest and Jorge Nunez-Ferrer
Asian Development Bank Institute
Working Paper No: 296
15 July 2011

Creating the framework for cross-border infrastructure cooperation often requires the active role of a third party, an "honest broker", to forge convergence of interests. In this paper, the authors take issue with the myth that transnational cross-border infrastructure cooperation is the result of supra-national decision-making at the EU level. Another myth this paper addresses is that the management of trans-national and cross-border infrastructure is primarily supra-national. Although additional co-financing may be sought from the European Community budget and/or the European Investment Bank, these resources always complement national budgetary allocations and private funding.

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"Health in all policies" in practice: Guidance and tools to quantifying the health effects of cycling and walking

Sonja Kahlmeier, Francesca Racioppi, Nick Cavill, Harry Rutter, and Pekka Oja
Journal of physical activity and health
2010, 7 (Suppl 1)
In: PEP - Transport, Health and Environment Pan-European Programme

There is growing interest in “Health in All Policies” approaches, aiming at promoting health through policies which are under the control of nonhealth sectors. While economic appraisal is an established practice in transport planning, health effects are rarely taken into account. An international project was carried out to develop guidance and tools for practitioners for quantifying the health effects of cycling and walking, supporting their full appraisal.

Development process: A systematic review of existing approaches was carried out. Then, the products were developed with an international expert panel through an extensive consensus finding process. Products and applications: Methodological guidance was developed which addresses the main challenges practitioners encounter in the quantification of health effects from cycling and walking.

A “Health Economic Assessment Tool (HEAT) for cycling” was developed which is being used in several countries. Conclusions: There is a need for a more consistent approach to the quantification of health benefits from cycling and walking. This project is providing guidance and an illustrative tool for cycling for practical application. Results show that substantial savings can be expected. Such tools illustrate the importance of considering health in transport policy and infrastructure planning, putting “Health in All Policies” into practice.

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El alza del precio del petróleo y su impacto en los fletes marítimos de productos exportados por Chile en contenedores

Sebastián Faúndez, Nanno Mulder, Gabriel Pérez Salas y Ricardo J. Sánchez
Serie Recursos Naturales e Infraestructura
Nº 151
Abril de 2011

El presente estudio analiza el impacto del alza del petróleo en el costo del flete de los principales productos exportados por Chile por vía marítima y que van en contenedores. Para ello, propone un modelo econométrico capaz de aislar la incidencia del precio del petróleo sobre los costos de transporte marítimo de contenedores, con el cual se analiza la información son los documentos únicos de salida (DUS) para el período 2001-2008. Durante 2007 y la primera mitad de 2008, que fue la antesala de la crisis económica mundial y donde se observó un brusco incremento del valor del precio del petróleo.

El modelo propuesto toma en cuenta la acción de la oferta y la demanda en la determinación del flete de contenedores en servicios regulares. Además corrige problemas de especificación observados en algunos modelos de la literatura tradicional, al rescatar los efectos fijos y constantes no medibles para una ruta/producto y considerar debidamente las economías de red al realizar un análisis costa a costa entre orígenes y destinos del comercio y no puerto a puerto, como es lo usual. El documento demuestra para el período analizado, que si bien el aumento de precio en el petróleo repercutió en los fletes pagados por las exportaciones chilenas, su participación fue menor a lo esperado, entorno al 30%. Lo que indica que hay otros factores que incidieron más fuertemente en la determinación de los fletes.

Los autores proponen un conjunto de acciones en el ámbito público para aliviar los efectos de los cambios en los fletes, entre los que destacan reformas en la políticas de provisión de infraestructura, los regímenes regulatorios del transporte, el fomento de la logística, la construcción de capacidades, la reducción de las asimetrías de información, la facilitación del comercio trans-fronterizo y el desarrollo de infraestructuras multimodales, entre otros aspectos.

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Experiencias internacionales en campañas integrales y efectivas de seguridad vial

Boletin FAL No 294 - 2 2011

La realización de campañas de seguridad vial han mostrado ser una medida efectiva en la reducción de los siniestros viales en la medida que estas se enmarquen dentro de una política pública nacional y se vean potenciadas con otras medidas complementarias como legislación y control efectivo de las medidas.

El presente boletín FAL analiza las principales características de política pública y de diseño
de campañas de seguridad vial a partir de seis experiencias internacionales tanto europeas
como latinoamericanas. Los autores de este boletín son José Ignacio Nazif, Consultor y Gabriel Pérez Salas de la Unidad de Servicios de Infraestructura de CEPAL.

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Caracterización de la brecha de infraestructura económica en América Latina y el Caribe

Daniel Perrotti
Boletin FAL No 293 - 1 2001
Enero 2011

La infraestructura económica es el conjunto de estructuras de ingeniería, equipos e instalaciones de larga vida útil vinculadas a los sectores de energía, transporte, telecomunicaciones, agua y saneamiento, las cuales constituyen la base sobre la cual se prestan servicios para los sectores productivos y los hogares. La provisión eficiente y oportuna de estas infraestructuras, tienen efectos positivos sobre el crecimiento económico y social, encontrándose relaciones interesantes entre inversión en infraestructura y mejoras en la equidad social. CEPAL ha llamado la atención de las autoridades regionales sobre el impacto de una inadecuada provisión de infraestructura, ya sea en términos de cantidad o calidad, sobre el desarrollo futuro de América Latina y el Caribe. Este déficit, caracterizado como brecha de infraestructura, requiere de medidas urgentes para elevar los niveles de la inversión, al mismo tiempo que se fortalecen y adecuan los arreglos regulatorios, organizacionales e institucionales vinculados a los servicios de infraestructura, para favorecer un desarrollo inclusivo y sostenible.

Teniendo en cuenta la importancia de esta temática para la región, el presente Boletín, resume los principales hallazgos de un documento de la Unidad de Servicios de Infraestructura de la CEPAL, próximo a publicarse, el cual a partir de una exhaustiva revisión de la literatura especializada, desarrolla y presenta una primera estimación sobre los montos necesarios de inversión para cerrar la brecha de infraestructura económica regional, considerando la demanda estimada para el período 2006-2009.


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Aspectos determinantes del estado de la facilitación del transporte en América Latina: Los casos de Colombia y el Perú (Comunidad Andina de Naciones)

Marelia Martínez Rivas
Studies and perspectives series, Washington - 8
Diciembre 2010

Pese a que el debate sobre la facilitación del comercio y del transporte ha sido bastante amplio, se ha centrado en el ámbito de comercio exterior y, sobre todo, en la simplificación de los trámites aduaneros. No obstante, la situación que afrontan los agentes de comercio internacional respecto del transporte en los tramos domésticos se ha tratado de manera muy tangencial y por lo general focalizada en la problemática fronteriza.

Sobre la base de una revisión conceptual y del estado en que se encuentran los aspectos que comprende el término “facilitación del transporte”, en el presente documento se explora la relación entre el impulso que le han dado algunos gobiernos y el consiguiente crecimiento de las exportaciones no tradicionales, así como los retos que afrontan los pequeños y medianos productores para ser competitivos internacionalmente cuando carecen de escala suficiente como para generar las soluciones logísticas pertinentes. Se analizan en detalle los esfuerzos realizados por varios países de la región andina —en particular Colombia y el Perú— para solventar estas restricciones, abordando el tema de la facilitación desde un punto de vista distinto al de la infraestructura: el de los demandantes de servicios de transporte y logística y de quienes ofrecen dichos servicios, esto es, la perspectiva de la demanda en comparación con la tradicional de la oferta.

En el estudio se concluye que si bien todavía existen brechas en materia de infraestructura, hay señales de que el problema está siendo atendido y se resolverá gradualmente. De ahí que en la actualidad los retos principales sean crear un sistema troncal de movimiento de carga que incluya redes y nodos logísticos y promover la calidad y diversificación de la oferta de servicios conexos de valor agregado mediante el fortalecimiento de los operadores de transporte, todo ello incorporando las nuevas tecnologías de la información y de las comunicaciones (TIC) del caso y adaptando la participación privada a las nuevas modalidades de funcionamiento que exige el sistema.

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Thursday, July 14, 2011

Urban World: Urban Sustainable Mobility

Volume 2 Issue 5 - 2010

In this issue:
- A brave new era for public transport in Latin America
- ‘Decade of Action’ launched to reduce road deaths as a global killer
- Medellin’s Mayor talks of how his city has moved from fear to hope
- The contribution of mass transit to sustainable cities and urban mobility

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Wednesday, July 13, 2011

Boletin Interamericano de Puertos Nº 36 Junio 2011

Comisión Interamericana de Puertos
Junio 2011

1. Inauguran Puerto de regasificación (Argentina)
2. Parque Industrial y Portuario del Caribe
3. Se realiza con éxito Primer Curso sobre Protección de Instalaciones
Portuarias (Chile)
4. Plan Maestro Portuario para Puerto Moin (Costa Rica)
5. Cruceros en Cartagena, US $40 millones en ganancias (Colombia).
6. Puerto de Mejillones mayor operador mundial de ácido sulfúrico (Chile)
7. Puerto de Manta con nueva Plataforma Logística (Ecuador)
8. Corredor interoceánico (Guatemala)
9. Puerto Coronel impulsa el trabajo femenino
10. Empresa Nacional Portuaria aumenta sus ingresos (Honduras)
11. Crean Consejo Marítimo Portuario en México
12. Puerto Multimodal en Barú (Panamá)
13. Nuevo Terminal Portuario en Yurimaguas (Perú)
14. Uruguay – Brasil – Argentina celebran Alianza Estratégica
15. Actividades Portuarias

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Financing infrastructure for connectivity: Policy implications for Asia

Biwa Nath Bhattacharyay
Asian Development Bank Institute
Research Policy Brief 33
June 2011

In view of Asia's huge infrastructure needs, as well as the reduced demand for exports due to the ongoing global financial and economic crisis, infrastructure projects offer a way of increasing regional demand and intraregional trade. This policy brief proposes various ways to tap Asia's huge financial resources to fund essential infrastructure. The key challenges include integrating financial markets to mobilize Asian savings for infrastructure, and providing proper incentives to investors, particularly those in the private sector, by developing appropriate policies, regulations, and institutions and long-term innovative financial instruments.

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Monday, July 11, 2011

Statistics of Road Traffic Accidents in Europe and North America - provisional edition

July 2011

This publication provides comparable data on causes, types and results of accidents in Europe, Canada and the United States. Data are organized by nature of accident and surroundings; accidents while under the influence of alcohol; and the number of persons killed or injured, by category or road user and age group. As background data, figures on the number of road vehicles in use and vehicle-kilometers run by road vehicles are also provided along with estimates of population and distribution by age group. This publication contains important statistical information for those involved in transportation planning and road safety issues. This is a trilingual publication in English, French and Russian.

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Study on Urban Access Restriction

European Commission
December 2010

This document reports on the results of a study funded by the EC – DG MOVE to investigate the state-ofthe-art of Access Restriction Schemes (ARS) in Europe and identify actions in which the European Union could engage to promote better awareness of the ARS concept, of the implementation options and of their effects, and to foster the dissemination and exchange of best practice in this field.

Access Restriction Schemes: a European study

An increasing number of European cities is engaged in the design and implementation of demand management strategies based upon the concept of "controlled access", which entails the more or less gradual interdiction of selected urban areas to traffic. Access restriction policies vary a great deal, depending on the chosen exclusion criteria. Popular examples include closure of inner city areas and other sensitive zones to less clean and energy efficient vehicles or to freight vehicles above a certain weight, to private vehicles owned by non-residents in the restricted area, or to motorized vehicles altogether.

The current situation is characterized by a high degree of heterogeneity, on several accounts:

  • The objectives of the Access Restriction Schemes (ARS): so far schemes were mainly driven by air quality targets, but other strategic objectives are forcefully emerging, including e.g. transport efficiency, economic growth etc.
  • the type of access restriction: i.e. which traffic is specifically targeted? (passengers Vs freight, vehicle technology, time slots, etc.)
  • the instruments adopted: they can be regulatory/prescriptive (bans, vehicle standards, etc.) or/and market based (road and/or parking pricing, bonuses, paying permits, incentives, etc), while information based instruments can supplement/facilitate the implementation of both regulatory and economic instruments – the technical/technological solutions adopted to implement and enforce the schemes

From the EU perspective, the heterogeneity of the schemes experimented/planned so far entails major drawbacks, notably:

  • higher costs (no mainstream technological/organizational solution)
  • undue/undesired discrimination (vehicles/users authorized in City X may be unauthorized in City Y)

Although subsidiarity and proportionality principles limit the scope of EU intervention, the recent Urban Sustainable Mobility Action Plan calls for a proactive role of the EU, focusing on the identification of best practices and their diffusion across European cities.

Study Abstract
Executive Summary
The European Traveller
Recommendations to the EU
Final Report

Project's webiste:

Wednesday, July 6, 2011

Infraestructura de transporte de cargas en la República Argentina: Actualización del estado de situación y propuesta para el modo vial

Foro de la cadena agroindustrial argentina
Noviembre 2010

En este nuevo documento, se realiza un inventario de la situación de la infraestructura de transporte de carga en la República Argentina, analizando los modos vial, ferroviario y fluvial-marítimo, y promueve una propuesta de solución para el transporte vial: el proyecto de ley con estado parlamentario “Programa de Modernización de la Infraestructura del Transporte Terrestre” (PROMITT), el que incorpora, a la idea original, las necesidades específicas del sector agroindustrial.

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Freightvision: Freight Transport 2050 Foresight


"FREIGHTVISION - Freight Transport 2050 Foresight" was a project funded by the European Commission Directorate General MOVE to design a long term vision for European freight transport in 2050 and to identify actions and research to progress appropriate freight transport measures in Europe.

The research was carried out between 2008 and 2010 as a foresight process encompassing four conferences in which the project team identified and developed with the aid of more than 100 experts an action plan for securing long term freight transport in Europe.

This book has been written on the basis of the FREIGHTVISION project and provided insights into the methodolgies and freight transport visions and Backcasts identified for 2035 and 2050, issues which need to be addressed and measures which were assessed.

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Transport Management - Thematic Research Summary

Transport Research Knowledge Centre
September 2009
*2010 Update

This paper covers the management of traffic and transport services for all modes, including changing the way in which existing transport systems are used and the strategic and tactical control of traffic. It is based on results of projects covering mobility & traffic management in urban areas, freight & logistics management, and traffic & network management for road, rail, waterways and airspace.

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Intelligent Transport Systems - Thematic Research Summary

Transport Research Knowledge Center
July 2009
*2010 update

The ITS theme deals with several combinations of communication, computer and control technology developed and applied in the domain of transport to improve system performance, transport safety, efficiency, productivity, and level of service, environmental impacts, energy consumption, and mobility.

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Tuesday, July 5, 2011

Environmental impact of road freight transport in 2020: Full report of a Delphi survey

M.I. Piecyk and A.C. McKinnon
Logistics Research Centre
School of Management and Languages
Heriot-Watt University
EH14 4AS
August 2009

Green logistics

This report summarises the results of a Delphi survey of 100 logistics specialists which sought their views on future freight transport and environmental trends in the UK up to 2020.

According to this panel of experts, over 50% of companies involved in road freight transport operation are likely to see their activities affected by climate change concerns to a significant or large extent by 2015. This proportion is expected to rise to over 80% by 2020.

Some long-established production and logistics trends which exert a strong influence on road freight demand, such as the centralisation of manufacturing and inventory, the adoption of JIT replenishment and the outsourcing of non-core activities, cannot continue indefinitely. The results of the Delphi survey reported in this paper suggest that these trends are likely to continue at least until 2020. The following trends were identified as most likely to occur up to 2020:

• Further relocation of production capacity to other countries.
• Increase in primary consolidation of inbound loads to manufacturing plants and/or distribution centres.
• Significant growth in online retailing.
• Reverse logistics is likely to gain in importance with more products reentering the supply chains for recycling, refurbishment and resale.
• More frequent ‘out-of-hours’ operation, especially increase in proportion of night-time deliveries.
• Growth in the use of advanced IT systems for transport planning and management (telematics, computerised vehicle routing and scheduling, etc).
• Increase in logistical collaboration initiatives between companies.
• Greater use of online freight exchanges online and load matching services.
• Fuel prices and availability of drivers were identified as major threats to the road freight industry.

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Infrastructure in Latin America

César Calderón
Luis Servén
World Bank
Policy Research Working Paper 5317
May 2010

An adequate supply of infrastructure services has long been viewed by both academics and policy makers as a key ingredient for economic development. Over the past quarter-century, the retrenchment of Latin America’s public sector from its dominant position in the provision of infrastructure, and the opening up of these industries to private participation, have renewed the debate on the role of infrastructure in the region’s development. The focus of this paper is three-fold. First, it documents, in a comparative cross-regional perspective, the trends in Latin America’s infrastructure development, as reflected in the quantity and quality of infrastructure services and the universality of their access. Overall, this suggests the emergence of an infrastructure gap vis-à-vis other industrial and developing regions. Second, it provides an empirical assessment of the contribution of infrastructure development to growth across Latin America. Third, it examines the trends in the financing of infrastructure investment—documenting the changing roles of the public and private sectors—and analyzes how they have been shaped by macroeconomic policy constraints.

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Repowering Transport 2011

World Economic Forum
April 2011

Global transportation and fossil fuels are inextricably linked. More than 60% of the 87 million barrels of oil consumed daily powers the world’s transportation system and liquid fossil fuels account for more than 96% of the sector’s energy supply.

The Repowering Transport project provides a high-level platform for executives from the World Economic Forum’s Industry Partners in the mobility (automotive, aviation, and logistics), energy (oil and gas, utilities, alternatives), chemicals, and investors industries, and select Global Growth Companies.The project explores technology-driven opportunities to drive short- to medium-term energy diversification and efficiency in the transportation sector. It provides a framework of key enablers – partnerships, policies, and financing mechanisms – that are critical to accelerate the development and deployment of these technologies.

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John Moavenzadeh, Senior Director and Head of Mobility Industries

Friday, July 1, 2011

Paving the way: Maximizing the value of private finance in Infrastructure

World Economic Forum

Given the dramatic need for investments in infrastructure at a time when many government budgets are under severe pressure, the role of private capital in financing infrastructure seems more critical than ever. This Report aims to showcase both the opportunities and the challenges associated with attracting and involving private investors in the provision of infrastructure.

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Technologies for climate change mitigation: Transport sector

TNA Guidebook Series
March 2011

Photo from the publication

This guidebook is designed to assist you as you contribute to the development of transport in your country or locality. It provides transport options that not only minimise greenhouse gas emissions, but also offer a host of other economic, social and environmental benefits, of which the following are some.

In terms of economic benefits, these options can:
• save money spent on transport by both individuals and society
• save time
• reduce dependence on imported fossil fuels
• reduce health costs and absenteeism resulting from traffic accidents and illness caused by vehicle pollution and lack of exercise
• provide better transport for all levels and sectors of society, so that all people can access jobs, markets, services and education, and thereby participate economically
• contribute to urban consolidation and reduce costs for the provision of urban infrastructure
• provide the transport necessary for effective and efficient twenty-first century economies.

In terms of social benefits, these measures can:
• reduce traffic congestion and noise and make localities more attractive and pleasant places in which to live and work
• promote better physical and mental health by encouraging and enabling people to exercise more,
by reducing road accidents and respiratory diseases caused by pollution, and by creating a less
stressful environment
• contribute to greater equality by ensuring that all levels of society have access to the necessary transport to meet their needs
• enhance community connectedness by promoting transport modes that have been shown to
increase local interaction.

In terms of environmental benefits, as well as reducing greenhouse gas emissions, these transport
options can:
• reduce local level pollution
• lessen urban sprawl
• reduce overall fuel use and in particular the use of unsustainable fuels
• decrease the use of other finite resources.

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Integrating U.S. Climate, Energy, and Transportation Policies: Proceedings of Three Workshops

March 2009

In June 2008, RAND convened three workshops for private and public sector representatives to discuss their competing views on climate change mitigation. The conference allowed them to find commonality on such issues as technological innovation; potential legislative and regulatory solutions; international cooperation; and public engagement.

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