Sunday, April 15, 2012

Achieving sustainability in urban transport in developing and transition countries

Umwelt Bundes Amt
August 2011
Prof. Dr. Michael Bräuninger, Dr. Sven Schulze, Leon Leschus, Dr. Jürgen Perschon, Christof Hertel, Simon Field, Nicole Foletta

Although nearly one fourth of global CO2-emissions are caused by the transport sector, its effects cannot be reduced to impacts on climate change. Other sustainability problems induced by the transport sector include air pollution, noise and accidents. At the same time mobility has become a basic human need and there is a strong connection between economic development and the transport sector. These effects are especially relevant in urban areas. Nowadays half of the world’s population resides in cities and until the year 2050 this share is expected to rise to 70 %. Besides, cities today already account for nearly two thirds of global energy consumption and for more than 70 % of global CO2-emissions. Thus, this study focuses on sustainability issues in urban transport. Special attention is given to the situation in developing and emerging countries.

2. Best-Practice Examples 45
Case Study 1: National Financing Instruments: Second Generation Road Funds - The Case of Tanzania 45
Case Study 2: Local Financing Instruments in Sibiu, Romania 48
Case Study 3: Public Private Partnership (PPP) in Transport – Hong Kong 50
Case Study 4: Global Environment Facility (GEF): The Latin America Regional Sustainable Transport and Air Quality Project 53
Case Study 5: Climate Investment Fund (CIF) & Clean Technology Fund (CTF) for comprehensive urban transport systems: Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam 55
Case Study 6: Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMA) Morocco 58

3. Settlement structures 61
1. Background 61
2. Best-Practice Examples 66
Case Study 7: Coordination of Transportation and Land Use Planning in Curitiba, Brazil 66
Case Study 8: Affordable Housing in Bogota, Colombia 702
Case Study 9: Brownfield Redevelopment in Beijing, China 73
Case Study 10: Sustainable Urban Development in Kunming, China 77
4. Technological solutions 81
Tech-Box 1: Trolleybuses 85
Tech-Box 2: Bioethanol in Brazil 86
Tech-Box 3: Cable propelled transit in Caracas 88
5. Non-technological solutions 92
1. Background 92
1. General considerations 92
2. Push-measures 94
3. Pull-measures 99
2. Best-Practice Examples 103
Case Study 11: Restrictions on Car-use in Singapore 103
Case Study 12: Bus Rapid Transit in Curitiba, Brazil 107
Case Study 13: Institutional Reform and Bus Rapid Transit ‘Lite’ in Lagos, Nigeria 111
Case Study 14: The Car-free Medina of Fes, Morocco 116
Case Study 15: Non-motorised Transport in Guangzhou, China 119
Case Study 16: Cycle Rickshaw Modernisation in Delhi, India 123
5. Summary and policy recommendations 12

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